1st Year Important Short Questions (2023 Exams)

i) Define molecular biology.
ii) What is embryology?
iii) Give four characteristics of living organisms.
iv) How deductive reasoning is different from inductive reasoning?
v) How and when hypothesis becomes a theory?
vi) Differentiate between deductive and inductive reasoning.
vii) Differentiate between B and T lymphocytes.
viii) What is pulmonary circulation?
ix) Describe briefly the “Symplast Pathway”.
x) Define transpiration. Write its effects on plants.
xi) What is hypertension?
xii) Define diffusion.
xiii) Define diffusion.
xiv) Differentiate between cohesion and adhesion.
xv) Give the name of three main blood vessels and their function in earthworms.
xvi) Write down pressure flow theory. Who proposed it?
xvii) What is a blue baby?
xviii) Differentiate between myocardial infarction and hemorrhage.
xix) Define active immunity.
xx) Differentiate between source and sink.
xxi) Differentiate between thrombus and embolus.
xxii) Define Osmosis.
xxiii) Give blood route in the fish circulatory system.
xxiv) Differentiate between single and double-circuit hearts with examples.
xxv) What is the larynx or voice box?
xxvi) Write down the causes of asthma.
xxvii) How do spiracles differ from tracheoles?
xxviii) Write two properties of respiratory surfaces in animals.
xxix) Give the composition of inhaled and exhaled air in men.
xxx) What is Syrinx? Where it is present?
xxxi) Define the term freshwater biology and biotechnology.
xxxii) Differentiate between anatomy and morphology.
xxxiii) Differentiate between Law and Theory.
xxxiv) Define hypothesis.
xxxv) Differentiate between molecular biology and biotechnology.
xxxvi) What is deductive reasoning? Give example.
xxxvii) What is the function of mRNA?
xxxviii) What are conjugated molecules? Give examples.
xxxix) Why the heat capacity of water is very high? Give its importance.
xl) Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.
xli) What are anabolic and catabolic reactions?
xlii) What is specific heat capacity?
xliii) Compare alpha helix with beta-pleated sheets in proteins
xliv) What is the function of mRNA?
xlv) Draw the sketch of the ATP molecule (nucleotide).
xlvi) What are Globular proteins? Give examples.
xlvii) Draw structures of ribofuranose and glucopyranose.
xlviii) How is a peptide bond formed? Show peptide bonds between two amino acids.
xlix) How does an enzyme accelerate a metabolic reaction?
l) How do slight and extreme changes in pH affect enzymes?
li) Differentiate between the activator and prosthetic groups.
lii) At a high level of substrate concentration, enzyme reaction is not increased. Why?
liii) What is meant by optimum temperature? Give an example.
liv) Give the functions of the binding site and catalytic site of the active site of an enzyme.
lv) What is cofactor? Give its types.
lvi) If more enzymes are added to a system its rate of reaction remains unchanged, why?
lvii) Define the lock and key model of the enzyme
lviii) What are reversible inhibitors?
lix) Differentiate between pepsin and pepsinogen.
lx) How do slight and extreme changes in pH affect enzymes?
lxi) What are microtubules? Write their function.
lxii) Define storage diseases. Give at least two examples.
lxiii) Give the role and composition of the cytoskeleton.
lxiv) How can you differentiate between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
lxv) Differentiate between microtubules and microfilaments.
lxvi) Give the name of Robert Hooke’s publication on cell discovery.
lxvii) Define storage diseases. Give at least two examples.
lxviii) Explain the role of nucleoli in the cell.
lxix) What is endocytosis? Differentiate between phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
lxx) How mitochondria are the powerhouse of a cell?
lxxi) Define the resolution of the eye.
lxxii) Differentiate between phagocytosis and pinocytosis.
lxxiii) Write down the biological classification of corn.
lxxiv) How viruses are classified on the basis of morphology?
lxxv) How hepatitis A is transmitted?
lxxvi) What is a prophage?
lxxvii) Write the number of capsomeres in the capsid of the Herpes Virus.
lxxviii) What is the role of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?
lxxix) Define “venom”
lxxx) What is Induction?
lxxxi) What is a prophage?
lxxxii) What is a virion?
lxxxiii) What is the role of reverse transcriptase in retroviruses?
lxxxiv) Why paramyxoviruses are famous?
lxxxv) Differentiate between photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria.
lxxxvi) Write down the functions of cell walls and flagella in bacteria cells.
lxxxvii) What are super blue-green algae?
lxxxviii) What Antonnie Van Leuwenhoek is famous for?
lxxxix) What are streptobacilli?
xc) What is the ecological importance of Bacteria?
xci) Differentiate antiseptics from disinfectants.
xcii) Write down reproduction in nostoc.
xciii) Differentiate between hormogonia and akinetes.
xciv) Differentiate between Antibiotics and Antiseptics with examples.
xcv) Write a note on bacterial nucleoid.
xcvi) What are plasmids?
xcvii) What are saprophytic bacteria?
xcviii) How cell walls of plants differ from Prokaryotes?
xcix) What is a trichome in Nostoc?
c) What are mesosomes? Describe their function.
ci) Describe asexual reproduction in nostoc.
cii) Differentiate between the microbicidal and micro bistatic effects of chemicals on bacteria.
ciii) What are Pyrrophytas? Give its examples and Pigments.
civ) What is thallus?
cv) What are choanoflagellates?
cvi) What is chlorella? Give its significance.
cvii) How does slime mold reproduce?
cviii) What are Kelps? Give their importance.
cix) Give four general characteristics of algae.
cx) What are foraminiferans?
cxi) Why euglena is difficult to classify?
cxii) Differentiate between Fungi like protists and fungi.
cxiii) What is the function of micronucleus and macronucleus in ciliates?
cxiv) What are Pyrrophytas? Give its examples and Pigments.
cxv) What is the function of the pellicle in ciliates?
cxvi) Write any two characteristics of foraminiferans.
cxvii) Write down the ecological role of dinoflagellates.
cxviii) What are Kelps? Give their importance.
cxix) How green algae and plants are identical?
cxx) What do you know about the Irish Potato Blight of the 19th century?
cxxi) Write structural characters of Penicillium.
cxxii) What are conidia?
cxxiii) What is Ergotism? How is it caused?
cxxiv) Why non-septate hyphae are called coenocytic hyphae?
cxxv) Give names of sexual and asexual spores of ascomycetes.
cxxvi) Give ecological importance of fungi.
cxxvii) What is a major component of the cell wall of fungi?
cxxviii) What is histoplasmosis? How does its infection spread?
cxxix) What is parasexuality?
cxxx) What are aflatoxins?
cxxxi) What is mycelium?
cxxxii) Differentiate between coenocytic and septate hyphae.
cxxxiii) What is parasexuality?
cxxxiv) How spores are different from Condia?
cxxxv) Differentiate between fragmentation and budding in fungi.
cxxxvi) What is fungus? Explain.
cxxxvii) Give ecological importance to fungi.
cxxxviii) What is Ergotism? How is it caused?
cxxxix) Write the scientific name and family of tomato and Sheesham.
cxl) Define ovule and embryo sac.
cxli) What is the economic importance of Fabaceae as food, forage, or fodder crop?
cxlii) Define circinate vernation. Give an example.
cxliii) How do spores of mosses differ from spores of liverworts?
cxliv) Define alternation of generations.
cxlv) What is ovule?
cxlvi) Differentiate between microgametophyte and megagametophyte.
cxlvii) Name four subdivisions of tracheophyte.
cxlviii) Differentiate between ovule and seed.
cxlix) what are Gymnosperms? Give example.
cl) Name living and extinct representatives of psilopsida.
cli) Enlist botanical names of four genera of the family Poaceae.
clii) Differentiate between Overtopping and Plantation.
cliii) Define circinate vernation. Give an example.
cliv) Why Anthoceropsida is considered more advanced than other bryophytes?
clv) Why bryophytes are called amphibians of plants?
clvi) What are antheridiophores and archegoniophores?
clvii) What is regeneration? Give its importance?
clviii) Name the phylum of starfish.
clix) Give beneficial effects to insects.
clx) How does Acoelomate differ from Pseudocoelomate?
clxi) Describe the skeleton of sponges.
clxii) Differentiate between enterocoelous and schizocoelous features.
clxiii) What do you know about flame cells?
clxiv) Define swim bladder. What is its function?
clxv) What is the diaphragm? In which group of animals it is found?
clxvi) What is metamorphosis?
clxvii) Discuss infestation of Platyhelminthes.
clxviii) Differentiate between diploblastic and triploblastic organisms.
clxix) What is the diaphragm? In which group of animals it is found?
clxx) Give three fundamental characters of chordates.
clxxi) Write down two characteristics of Osteichthyes.
clxxii) What is blastostyle?
clxxiii) What are tunicates?
clxxiv) What is a nymph?
clxxv) What are cytochromes?
clxxvi) Explain chemiosmosis.
clxxvii) Define photosynthesis. Give its summary equation.
clxxviii) How it was proved that the source of photosynthesis is water?
clxxix) Name the processes which act as energy capturing and energy releasing.
clxxx) What is biological oxidation?
clxxxi) Explain chemiosmosis.
clxxxii) Name the processes which act as energy capturing and energy releasing.
clxxxiii) Differentiate between Alcoholic and Lactic acid fermentation with Reactions.
clxxxiv) What is the payoff phase of glycolysis?
clxxxv) What are accessory pigments? Give one example.
clxxxvi) Differentiate between chlorophyll – a and chlorophyll – b.
clxxxvii) Differentiate between intracellular and extracellular digestion.
clxxxviii) Enlist the steps involved in holozoic nutrition.
clxxxix) Define detritivores.
cxc) What is gastrin? Give its function.
cxci) Define Digestion and Egestion.
cxcii) Compare diarrhea and constipation.
cxciii) Give two ways by which pepsinogen is activated.
cxciv) Write down the function of Villi.
cxcv) What is peristalsis and antiperistalsis?
cxcvi) What are cnidocytes?
cxcvii) What are hemorrhoids (piles)?
cxcviii) Write a note on the heart bum.
cxcix) What is Syrinx? Where it is present?
cc) What is the diaphragm? State its role in breathing.
cci) What are tracheoles?
ccii) Differentiate between external and cellular respiration.
cciii) Differentiate between inspiration and expiration.
cciv) Differentiate between bronchi and bronchioles.
ccv) Define the terms alveoli and air sac.
ccvi) What is respiratory distress syndrome?
ccvii) How do pH and Temperature affect the capacity of hemoglobin to combine with oxygen?
ccviii) Briefly describe pulmonary circulation.
ccix) What is the role of “Surfactant” in respiratory distress syndrome?
ccx) What are the functional units of the lungs?

1st Year Test Papers of Biology


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