THE OLD ENMITY
War is the enemy of humanity. Many archaeologists speculate that the war in some areas began in the Mesolithic period, ending in 9700 BC, after the end of the last ice age. C., when European hunter-gatherers established themselves and formed more complex societies. But there really isn’t an easy answer. There have been wars in different places at different times. For half a century, archaeologists have agreed that numerous violent deaths of the Jabal Sahaba on the banks of the Nile River in northern Sudan took place much earlier, around 12,000 BC.
Shortly thereafter, settlements, weapons, and burials north of the Tigris date to a war involving settlements of hunter-gatherer villages between 9750 and 8750 BC. Nearby, the first village fortifications known to the peasantry date back to the seventh millennium, and the first conquest of the city center took place between 3800 and 3500 BC. At the time, hostilities were common throughout Anatolia, spreading in part through the conquest of immigrants from the northern tigers.
In contrast, archaeologists have found no conclusive evidence in settlements, weapons, or skeletal remains in the southern Levant (from Sinai to southern Lebanon and Syria) dated to around 3200 BC. In Japan, violent death from any cause among hunter-gatherer groups from 13,000 to 800 B.C. was a rarity. With the development of wet rice cultivation around 300 B.C. in more than one in ten remains, violent deaths became apparent. In well-studied sites in North America, some very early skeletal trauma appears to be the result of personal rather than collective conflicts. The Florida site contained evidence of numerous murders around 5400 BC.In parts of the Pacific Northwest the same thing happened by 2200 BC, but in the southern Great Plains before 500 AD. only one violent death was recorded.
WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
The preconditions that make war more likely include a transition to a more stable life, increased territorial population, concentration of valuable resources such as livestock, increased social complexity and classification, trade in high-value goods, and group boundaries. Includes living room. Collective identity These conditions are sometimes associated with drastic climate change. First, the Jebel Sahaba war could be a response to an environmental crisis as the Nile flows through a valley that destroyed fertile swamps and eventually the area was abandoned by humans. Then, centuries after the beginning of agriculture, Neolithic Europe showed – for example – that when people had more to fight, their societies would start organizing in this way, more ready to move forward and accept the war.
However, there are limitations to what archeology can show, and we need to look for answers elsewhere. Ethnography – the study of different cultures, lifestyles and the past – this Illustrates the prerequisites. There is a fundamental difference between “simple” and “complex” prison societies. More than 200,000 years ago most of human life was marked by common prey and gathering human society. These groups typically collaborate with each other and live in small and even mobile ranges, using small populations and large areas of low ownership.
By contrast, hunters and gatherers are complexes inhabiting permanent settlements with a population of hundreds. They maintain social assessments of related groups and individuals, seemingly restrict access to food resources, and have a more sophisticated political leadership. Signs of this social complexity first appeared during the Mesolithic period. Sometimes, but not always, the emergence of hunter-gatherer complexes can mark a transitional stage towards agriculture, which is the basis for the development of political states. Moreover, these groups were often at war. However, the preconditions for war are only part of the story, and may not be enough on their own to predict the onset of mass struggles. In the southern Levant, for example, such conditions have existed for thousands of years without evidence of war.
Why, however, was there a lack of conflict? It turns out that many societies also had unique prerequisites for peace. Many social systems prevent war, such as relationships and cross-marriage. Group bonding Cooperation in hunting, agriculture or food sharing; Flexibility in the social system that allows individuals to move to another group; Rules that value peace and stigmatize murder; And recognized ways to resolve disputes. These processes do not eliminate serious conflict, but they do manage to prevent it from killing or confine it to a limited number of people. If so, why are subsequent archaeological excavations, reports from explorers and anthropologists so full of deadly battles? Over thousands of years the preconditions of war have become more common. Once established, the war usually spreads, with less violent ones replacing less violent ones. States have evolved around the world, and states are able to militarize people in their perimeter and trade routes. A drought-like environment often Around AD 950 to 1250, and began its rapid transformation in the Little Ice Age around 1300 AD. During that time wars began in America, the Pacific and elsewhere. In most countries around the world, the war is long, but the conflict is exacerbated by the increase in the number of casualties. Disasters increase and sometimes create situations that lead to war and peace may not return if the situation is easy.
This was followed by the global expansion of Europe, which led to changes, intensities and sometimes civil wars around the world. These battles were only with victory and patience. The locals fought against each other to tempt the new enemies of the colonial power and to supply them with supplies.
Ancient and Interactions and consequent conflicts between the recently expanded states have led to the establishment of tribal identities and divisions. The long-term effects of trade, disease, and population displacement have shifted to areas not controlled by colonialism. All this led to war. States ignited conflicts within the local population and set political institutions with clear boundaries rather than vague local identities and limited authority, which they often encountered during their colonial invasions.
Scholars seek support for the idea that the desire of the people to fight deadly before the rise of the state, and that “wild” warfare is seen as endemic and is often seen as an expression of human struggle, as evidence of warfare in “areas tribe ”. nature. However, a careful examination of the so-called ethnographic violence among locals in the historical record offers another perspective. Hunters-gatherers of northwestern Alaska from the late 18th to 19th centuries illustrate the concealment of projecting the ethnography of contemporary people into the distant past of humanity. Intense warfare, associated with village marches, is still in vivid oral traditions. Hunters-gatherers cite this deadly violence as evidence of war before corruption by the growing states. However, archeology, together with the history of the region, offers a very different assessment. There is no trace of warfare in the early archaeological remains of the simple cultures of Alaska hunter-gatherers. The first signs of war appear between 400 and 700 AD and are probably the result of contact with immigrants from Asia or southern Alaska, where the war was already established. But these conflicts were limited in size and perhaps in severity.
Favorable climatic conditions from AD 1200, increased social complexity among these whale hunters, including closer, more stable populations and long-term relationships. Two centuries later war was common. But the war of the nineteenth century was much more intense, so intense that it reduced the regional population. These subsequent conflicts (reflection of oral history) Involves the expansion of the population that leads to a comprehensive trade agreement with Russian immigrants in Siberia and ultimately to the centrality and territorial boundaries of complex tribes across the Bering Strait.
UKRAIN AND RUSSIA WAR
|Deaths||At least 46K|
|Non-fatal injuries||Approximately 13K|
|Missing||At least 400|
|Displaced||At least 14M|
|Buildings destroyed||At least 2.1K|
|Property damage||Approximately US$600B|
On February 24, 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine, reflecting the rapid escalation of the Russia-Ukraine war that began in 2014. The European invasion caused the biggest refugee crisis since World War II. More than 6.2 million Ukrainians have fled their homeland and one-third of the population is out of place.
At the start of the war in 2014, Russia was accused of annexing the southern part of Ukraine, and of southeastern Ukraine in support of Russia.(Donbass, Luhansk and Donetsk oblasts) The divided regions triggered a regional war. In 2021, Russia began building a huge military building along the Ukrainian border to house 190,000 troops and equipment. A recent In mail and television campaigns, Russian President Vladimir Putin echoed non-septic views: he demanded Ukraine’s right to civil service and falsely accused neo-Nazi Ukraine of persecuting Russia’s ethnic minorities.
Putin added that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) had expanded eastward in the early 2000s, posing a threat to Russia’s national security, which NATO objected to. Russia wants to halt NATO expansion and permanently bar Ukraine from joining the alliance. Although many countries have accused Russia of invading or planning to invade Ukraine, Russian officials have repeatedly denied it until February 23, 2022.
February 21, 2022-Russia has recognized the Donetsk People’s Republic and the Luhansk People’s Republic, two self-proclaimed statelets controlled by pro-Russian separatists in Donbass. The next day, the Council of the Russian Federation approved the use of military force abroad, and Russian troops entered both areas publicly. The attack began on the morning of February 24, when Putin called Ukraine a “demilitarization and naval” Announced a “special military operation”. Minutes later, missiles and air strikes hit Ukraine, including the capital, Kiev, and soon massive ground attacks began from multiple directions. Ukrainian President Vladimir Zaleski declared martial law and announced a general movement of all Ukrainian citizens between the ages of 18 and 60, who are prohibited from leaving the country.
As the invasion began on February 24, 2022, the northerly front from Belarus moved toward Kiev, while the northeast front attacked the city of Kharkov; The south-east façade was made up of two separate defensive façades, a Crimean south façade and a separate southeast façade launched in the cities of Luhansk and Donetsk. On April 8, the Russian ministry announced that all troops and divisions deployed in southeastern Ukraine under General Aleksandr Dvornikov, who was in charge of joint military operations and later resigned, would agree to -includes redesigned creation faces originally assigned to the north and northeast front. It was reallocated to the second phase facing the southeast. By April 17, progress on the southeastern can was hampered by the fact that the remaining troops continued to oppose the Azovstal iron and steel works in Mariupol. On April 19, Russia launched a renewed invasion a total of 500 kilometers (300 miles) stretching from Kharkov. With simultaneous missile attacks on Donetsk and Luhansk, again on Kiev in the north and Lviv in western Ukraine.
The interference is a violation of international law established by the United Nations, which condemns “all violations of international humanitarian law” against the Geneva Conventions. The United Nations resolution demanded a general withdrawal of Russian forces, the International Court of Justice ordered Russia to suspend military operations and send the Council of Europe to Russia. Many countries introduced new sanctions that affected the economy of the country and Russia, and provided humanitarian and military assistance to the Ukrainians. There were protests all over the world; He joined forces with buttons and advanced censorship tools, including banning the use of the words “war” and “invasion” in Russia. Many companies withdrew their goods and services from Russia and Belarus, and were prohibited from issuing Russian instruments in public funds. and has been removed from online platforms. The International Criminal Court has launched an investigation into war crimes that have occurred in Ukraine since the 2013-2014 United States Revolution, whether it be war-related crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide in the 2022 occupation.
Israel and Palestine war
There are concerns that a third intifada could break out and tensions could again lead to widespread violence. The United States has an interest in protecting the security of its long-term Israeli allies and in taking lasting action between Israel and the Palestinian territories that will enhance regional security.
In October 2020, an Israeli court ordered that a number of Palestinian families living in Sheikh Jarrah, a neighborhood in East Jerusalem, be evacuated by May 2021 and their land handed over to Jewish families. In February 2021, several Palestinian families from Sheikh Jarrah appealed against the court order, and appeal hearings sparked protests, demanding an end to the ongoing legal battle over property ownership and the forced displacement of Palestinians from their homes in Jerusalem.
In late April 2021, Palestinians began appearing on the streets of Jerusalem due to the eviction lawsuit, and Sheikh Jarrah’s residents began to spend the night in the lodge with other rulers. At the beginning of May, after the court ruled in favor of the evictions, the Israeli police announced the launch of campaigns against the demonstrators. After weeks of daily demonstrations and tensions between protesters, Israeli settlers and police during the month of Ramadan, violence erupted at Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem and Israeli police clashed with protesters by hundreds of Palestinians using shock grenades, bullets and water guns. survivors were injured.
After the conflict in the old city of Jerusalem, tensions rose in the east of Jerusalem, and it was decided to celebrate Jerusalem Day. On May 10, after several consecutive days of violence in Jerusalem and the use of deadly and non-lethal violence by Israeli police, the militant group Hamas, which heads Gaza, and other Palestinian militant groups threw hundreds of stones at the Israeli border. . Israel responded with airstrikes followed by artillery shelling of Gaza targets, including several airstrikes that killed more than twenty Palestinians. While other Hamas militants claimed to have attacked their infrastructure, including mines and rocket sculptors, Israel expanded its air campaign and hit targets such as residential buildings, headquarters, refugees and medical facilities. On May 21, Israel and Hamas both declared victory and declared that there was no violation as they retreated into the fire set by Egypt. More than two hundred and fifty Palestinians were killed and nearly two thousand wounded in the eleven-day war, and at least thirteen Israelis were killed. Gaza officials estimate tens of millions of dollars in damage, and the United Nations estimates that more than 72,000 Palestinians have been displaced by the war. In 2022 ,June these invades increased day by day.